Classics: Sociology and Criminality Sociological Positivism Essay

Submitted By mbrow262
Words: 545
Pages: 3

Modern Criminology and Ancient Crime

Approaches to Criminology

Legal
- Crime is law-breaking behavior; punishment is what law does in response to crime

Moral * Who is criminal? think they are immoral * Consequences in what is a definition of crime (some actions law breaking but not really immoral i.e. Speeding j-walking, things can be immoral but not law breaking behavior) * More universal than legal approach

Social * Social customs, violating social customs could be more criminal than violating legal codes. Nomos (social custom/law), different standards

Humanistic * Human rights are theoretically universal, wrong no matter when or where. * Aeschylus, slave owner, product of own time cant say immoral person, but humanistic approach says that not being a slave is universal right and is still wrong in his time. * Even though not against law, thought moral law, but according to humanistic universal still wrong and criminal

Social constructionist * Many things we take for granted as natural, permanent and universal actually aren’t, and they are built by society rather than nature. * Physis (philosophy of nature). * Example, history of sexuality. Construct identity along criminality, who is and who isn’t, we invent this category in different way than ancient. Says standards so embedded in our minds they seem natural and universal. * Classify sexual identity in terms of object choice, not case for ancient grease, they recognized it was a thing but wasn’t important * Primary categories in ancient Greek were in sexual acts (not who with), to us this is less important than object choice * Construct identity in different ways in different societies * Difficult to separate person from act, if approach from identity (not a racist but…)

19th and 20th Century Criminology

* Development of modern criminology, use modern to look at classical Athens and see differences * Positivism approach focused on characteristics of people, not criminal action (Criminality ass people rather than actions and laws)

Biological Positivism- Lombroso * Some people are just criminals * Takes scientific approach comparing physical qualities between criminals and non criminals * Says genetically less evolved and cant live in society * Today, thought people part of certain minorities more likely to be criminal * We avoid drawing causal relationship today between physical…