African-American Civil Rights Movement
Throughout the 1960’s, the widespread movement for African American civil rights had transformed in terms of its goals and strategies. The campaign had intensified in this decade, characterized by greater demands and more aggressive efforts. Although the support of the Civil Rights movement was relatively constant, the goals of the movement became more high-reaching and specific, and its strategies became less compromising. African Americans’ struggle for equality during the 1960’s was a relentless movement that used change for progress. In essence, the transformation of the Civil Rights Movement throughout the 1960’s forwarded the evolution of America into a nation of civil equality and freedom.
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Freedom Riders were another breed of nonviolent civil rights activists, who exploited the transportation system as their form of reform. Specifically, under the notably liberal provision of the Warren Commission, the Supreme Court Case of Boynton vs. Virginia concluded in favor of civil rights, ruling that, in accordance with the stipulations of the Interstate Commerce Act, segregation in public transportation was illegal. This ruling was made on December 5, 1960, and the year that followed was used by civil rights activists to celebrate this desegregation. These ‘Freedom Riders’ would, in masses, board interstate buses that traveled to Southern states (where racism was prevalent) often displaying signs that read ‘Freedom’s Wheel’s are Rollin’. The nonviolent manner of reform is also evident in a famous letter written by Martin Luther King Jr; “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” After being sent to the Birmingham prison for violating an injunction that prohibited public demonstrations, Dr. King thought it necessary to write of Birmingham’s injustice. He writes in this letter "Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere." Dr. King believed that without direct and non-violent actions such as his, no progress would be made. In this famous