Study Guide for Exam 1 Essay

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Study Guide for Exam 1 I. Argument Identification: Be able to determine if a passage has an argument in it. If it does, you will be asked to underline the conclusion and circle the relevant indicator words. (You’ll find practice exercises on Blackboard.) a. Premise Indicators – These words usually, but not always, indicate that what follows is a premise. The statement that comes after one of these words or phrases will usually be a premise (evidence) that supports a conclusion. (Note: there are other premise indicators, but the ones listed below seem to be used most often.) i. since ii. for iii. because iv. for the reason that v. is implied by vi. as shown by vii. is proved by viii. this follows from ix. is demonstrated by x. due to the fact that b. Conclusion Indicators – These words usually, but not always, indicate that what follows is a conclusion. The statement that comes after one of these words or phrases will usually be a conclusion. (Note: there are other conclusion indicators, but the ones listed below seem to be used most often.) xi. so xii. therefore xiii. thus xiv. consequently xv. proves that xvi. which is why xvii. shows that xviii. it follows that xix. hence xx. demonstrates that xxi. infers that

II. The Eight Elements of Reasoning: Be able to identify or infer the eight elements as they apply to an article. And be prepared to evaluate the main argument. (You’ll find practice exercises on Blackboard.) c. Question at issue d. Purpose (“To…” statement) e. Perspective f. Key Concepts g. Conclusion h. Evidence i. Consequences [unstated] (will be in the future tense) j. Assumptions [unstated] k. N/A = Not applicable. (There will be four.)

III. From the Infusion text l. Chapter 1: Review pages 3-10 and 19-20. xxii. Helping Our Students Become Better Thinkers 1. Students must be prepared to exercise critical judgment and creative thinking to gather, evaluate, and use information for effective problem solving and decision making in their jobs, in their professions, and in their jobs. 2. It is the classroom teacher who must assume the main responsibility for helping our students become better thinkers. The following points provide the basic rationale for infusing critical and creative thinking into content instruction. 3. The more explicit the teaching of thinking is, the greater impact it will have on students. 4. The more classroom instruction incorporates an atmosphere of thoughtfulness, the more open students will be to valuing good thinking. 5. The more the teaching of thinking is integrated into content instruction, the more students will think about what they are learning. xxiii. Improving Student Thinking in Content Area Instruction 6. Key questions that effective thinkers raise and answer questions that effective thinkers raise and answer when making sound judgments are organized into thinking plans that can be used to guide good thinking. Any teacher can design well-crafted infusion lessons which dramatically enhance student content learning. 7. Thinking carefully about causes is crucial in almost every profession. Effective work in science, engineering, accounting, journalism, nursing, and law enforcement involves the need for well-founded judgments about causes. This kind of thinking is crucially important in our daily lives. xxiv. Thinking Skills and Processes Featured in this Handbook 8. There are three categories of thinking skills: a.…